Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Dikir Raya


Sunday, August 14, 2011

Imam Al-Ghazali rah.

Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Tusi famous in the world of learning as al-Ghazzali. The Imam major Shafi‘i jerist, heresiographer and debater, expert in the principles of doctrine and those of jurisprudence.

He was born in 450 AH (1058 A.D). in Tus (modern Mash'had in NE Persia). He attended the village madressa and as a young man went to the Nizamia Madressa, which was a very famous educational institution in Nishapur. He was a clever and keen student who took interest in all subjects.

His cleverness as a student was commented upon in court circles in Persia and the Grand Vizier took special interest in his progress and encouraged him to devote himself to the pursuit of knowledge.
Al-Ghazzali justified the confidence shown in him by his patron and graduated from the Nizamia Madressa at Nishapur, with distinction.

Later he was appointed as a Professor  at the Nizamia a famous University  in Baghdad, where he proved very successful in imparting knowledge to the scholars under his care. This valuable gift of sustaining interest of his pupils and passing on his knowledge to them made him so famous that students from all parts of the country flocked to study under him.

Among his teachers in law, debate, and principles are Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Râdhakâni in Tus, Abu Nasr al-Isma‘ili in Jurjan, and Imam al-Haramayn Abu al-Ma‘ali al-Juwayni in Naysabur, from where he departed to Baghdad after the latter’s death. Ibn ‘Asakir also mentions that during the last days of his life al-Ghazzali addressed himself wholeheartedly to the study of the traditions and studied Sahih   al-Bukhari and Sahih Al- Muslim.

Al-Ghazzali came to Baghdad in 484 and began a prestigious career of teaching, giving fatwa, and authoring books in nearly all the Islamic sciences of his day. His skill in refuting opponents was unparalleled except by his superlative godwariness, which led him to abandon his teaching position at the Nizamiyya school four years later, deputizing his brother Ahmad, famous for his preaching, to replace him. Upon completion of pilgrimage to Makkah  al-Ghazzali headed for Damascus, then al-Qudus, then Damascus again where he remained for several years, taking up the ascetic life with the words: "We sought after knowledge for other than Allah’s sake, but He refused that it be for anything other than Him.

In his autobiography, al-Munqidh min al-dalal (The Deliverer from Error), written late in his life. It was his habit from an early age, he says, to search for the true reality of things. In the process he came to doubt the senses and even reason itself as the means to ‘certain knowledge’, and fell into a deep scepticism. However, he was eventually delivered from this with the aid of the divine light, and thus recovered his trust in reason. Using reason, he then set out to examine the teachings of ‘the seekers after truth’: the theologians, philosophers, Batinites   and concluded 'There remained, then, only what was attainable, not by hearing and studying, but by fruitional experience and actually engaging in the way'  As a result of these studies, he came to the realisation that there was no way to certain knowledge except through Mysticism. In order to reach this ultimate truth of the Sufis, however, it is first necessary to renounce the world and to devote oneself to mystical practice. Al-Ghazali came to this realization through an agonising process.

It was in Damascus, Syria, that al-Ghazzali began writing books on religious philosophy which later made him famous throughout the world. He was a prolific writer and he wrote nearly  400  books on a variety of subjects which covered several volumes.
some of his works include:
  • Four works in Shafi‘i fiqh: the large al-Basit, the medium, seven-volume al-Wasit, and the two-volume al-Wajiz, condensed in al-Khulasa. Al-Wasit received many commentaries and abridgments, among them al-Nawawi’s Rawda al-Talibin.
  • Four books on usûl al-fiqh: al-Mankhul, written in the lifetime of his teacher, Imam al-Haramayn; Shifa’ al-Ghalil fi Masa’il [or Masalik] al-Ta ‘lil; al-Maknûn; and al-Mustasfa. "Imam al-Ghazali’s Encyclopedia of Shari‘a Source Methodology, his fourth book on the subject, and his last word, was al-Mustasfa, which has been printed several times in Egypt and elsewhere. Indeed, this is the work he wrote after coming out of his period of meditation and seclusion."
  • Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din, among his last works.
  • al-Imla’ ‘ala Mushkil al-Ihya’, in which he replied to some of the insinuations made against the Ihya’ in his lifetime. This book is also called al-Ajwiba al-Muskita ‘an al-As’ila al-Mubhita.
  • Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, now lost.
  • Jawahir al-Qur’an.
  • al-Arba‘un fi al-Tawhid, originally part of Jawahir al-Qur’an.
  • al-Asma’ al-Husna.
  • al-Ma’akhidh, on the divergences of jurisprudents.
  • Tahsin al-Ma’akhidh, a commentary on al-Ma’akhidh.
  • Kimya’ al-Sa‘ada, The Alchemy of Happiness, originally written in Persian.
  • al-Lubab al-Muntakhal, on disputation.
  • al-Iqtisad fi al-I‘tiqad, i
He came out of seclusion in 499 and travelled to Cairo, Iskandariyya and other places, finally returning to Baghdad where he taught his magnum opus Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din until his death in nearby Tus, occupying the remainder of his time with devotions, Qur’an recitations, prayer and fasting, and the company of Sufis.
Al-Ghazali died at Tabran in Jamadi al Ukhra 505 AH at the age of 55 years. Ibn al-Jawzee narrated in al-Thabat ‘Inda al-Mamat ("Firmness at the Time of Death") from al-Ghazzali’s brother Ahmad: "On Monday [14 Jumada al-Akhira] at the time of the dawn prayer my brother Abu Hamid made his ablution, prayed, then said: ‘Bring me my shroud.’ He took it, kissed it and put it on his eyes, saying: ‘We hear and obey in readiness to enter the King’s presence.’ Then he stretched his legs, facing the Qibla, and died before sunrise – may Allah sanctify his soul!"

Imam al-Ghazzali was  fondly referred to as the "Hujjat-ul-lslam", Proof of Islam, He is honoured as a scholar and a saint by learned men all over the world.

Al-Ghazzalli taught his followers to love and serve Allah, trust in Him and to do good. He enjoined them to realise that man can do nothing without the help of Allah ; but that should not be made an excuse to be lazy and indolent. Man possesses the freedom of choice as far as good and evil actions are concerned, but this freedom does not extend beyond certain limitations.

Imam al-Ghazzali's life was spent in self-sacrificing service of God and his fellowmen. He left behind him a fine example for all men to follow.

Tuesday, August 02, 2011

Sebab dan akibat - 18

Terungkitnya akan kewujudan sebab dan akibat dialam ini adalah kerana hukum akal dari diri insaniah. Erti hukum akal (hukum aqli) adalah meletakkan sesuatu barang, hal, perkara dan seterusnya kerana adanya sesuatu mahupun punca atau dalam kata lain, meletakkan sesuatu akibat lantaran sesuatu penyebab dan sebegitu juga sebaliknya iaitu menidakkan sesuatu lantaran tiadanya sesuatu mahupun punca atau dalam kata lain, menafikan sesuatu akibat lantaran ketiadaan penyebabnya.

Hukum akal terbahagi kepada tiga iaitu, wajib, mustahil dan jaiz. Wajib adalah sesuatu yang wajar diterima oleh akal seperti sebab melakukan amalan-amalan yang soleh mengakibatkan seseorang tersebut tenteram jiwanya, sebab pejuang-pejuang kemerdekaan dahulu bertungkus-lumut memperjuangkan kemerdekaan mengakibatkan generasi kini hidup aman dalam negaranya yang merdeka, sebab hubungan jenis lelaki dan wanita mengakibatkan kelahiran, sebab terjatuhnya dari bangunan yang tinggi mengakibatkan kematian dan lain-lain.

Mustahil adalah sesuatu yang tidak dapat diterima oleh akal seperti tiadanya akibat kematian bagi yang bernyawa, tiadanya akibat keracunan lantaran sebab meminum racun tikus, tiadanya akibat kebuluran lantaran sebab tiada makanan, tiadanya akibat perpecahan lantaran sebab kegilaan kuasa oleh sesuatu pihak dan lain-lain.

Jaiz pula adalah sesuatu samaada yang harus diterima mahupun ditolak oleh akal seperti sebab memandu kereta maka ia menjimatkan masa dan belanja (dimana kemungkinan sebaliknya terjadi iaitu sipemandu terperangkap dalam traffik-jem berjam-jam atau terpaksa membayar saman beratus-ratus ringgit), sebab meminum kopi membuat mata tidak mengantuk, sebab memakan nasi makan perut tidak dimasuki angin dan lain-lain.

Berputarnya hidup insan saban waktu dengan kefahaman diatas sebab dan akibat disekitar kehidupannya adalah berpaut pada hukum akalnya. Yang mana merupakan kewajaran buat suatu pemikiran rasional atau pemikiran yang jelas, namun disamping itu juga sering membuat dirinya jauh terpesong lantaran ketandusan sumber-sumber kebenaran atau yang hak dalam penjelasan akan apakah suatu sebab dan akibat tersebut.

Misal yang paling baik akan kesan dari hukum akal adalah kisah antara para malaikat dan siIblis, dimana semasa Allah hendak menjadikan insan sebagai khalifah dimuka-bumi, para malaikat bertanya kenapa insan yang dipilih kerana melalui hukum akal para malaikat, insan hanya akan menumpahkan darah serta melakukan kehancuran dimuka bumi. Namun bilamana Allah berfirman bahawa ilmu-Nya mengatasi segalanya, para malaikat tunduk mengakui kebenaran dan mengakui kedhaifan diri mereka.

Sedang sebaliknya terjadi kepada Iblis dimana dia menggunakan hukum akalnya bahawa asbab kejadian dari api adalah lebih mulia dari asbab kejadian dari tanah, iaitu dirinya yang dijadikan dari asbab api lebih mulia dari Nabi Adam yang dijadikan dari asbab tanah, dan lantaran dari itu, bila diperintahkan untuk sujud hormat kepada Nabi Adam, siIblis memberontak yang mengakibatkan dirinya terpencil dari rahmat Allah dan dilaknat selama-lamanya.

Perbezaan diantara para malaikat dan siIblis adalah biarpun masing-masing memperkatakan akan sebab dan akibat dari hukum akal mereka, para malaikat menyedari kesilapan mereka dan memohon keampunan kerana mempersoalkan kekuasaan Allah diatas sebab dan akibat, sedang siIblis yang menerima padah dilaknat selama-lamanya adalah kerana tetap angkuh akan kefahaman melalui hukum akalnya bahawa dirinya adalah lebih mulia dari insan dan melupai bahawa segala sebab dan akibat iaitu samada kejadian dari api, tanah atau cahaya, Allah sahajalah yang berkuasa memuliakan atau merendahkan kedudukannya.

Kisah ini menjadi ikhtibar buat umat insan semua bahawa kenyataan yang sebenar iaitu Allah yang berkuasa diatas segala sebab dan akibat. Segala sebab dan akibat hanyalah merupakan ujian buat insan untuk tunduk kepada Allah semata-mata. Segala sebab dan akibat adalah dibawah perintah Allah semata-mata dan Allah tidak memerlukan semua itu sama sekali. 


Monday, August 01, 2011

Ramadan Mubarak

"Mubarak Alaikom Al Shahar" - Selamat berpuasa, semoga dilimpahi rahmat dibulan Ramadan yang mulia ini buat semua muslimin dan muslimat dimana-mana sahaja disamping semoga semuanya dapat meningkatkan amal solehan dibulan yang mulia ini. Semoganya juga Allah menerima segala amalan dan diampuni-Nya.


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